Entries in Altitude Training (3)


Altitude: The Good, The Bad & The Ugly - Professor Greg Whyte

SSM Conference 2015: Altitude: The Good, The Bad & The Ugly - Professor Greg Whyte

Published on Jun 15, 2015

Altitude: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Professor Greg Whyte explains the positive and negative impact of training at altitude on subsequent athletic development and performance. This is an area of growing research and the extant literature is presented to demonstrate the good, bad and ugly aspects of altitude training. 

This discussion includes an investigation into the underlying physiological processes of the adaptations, whilst making reference to endurance performance. The discussion covers how to prepare for altitude training, what the optimum level of altitude is to encourage positive training effects, how to properly monitor athlete and the importance of this. Information is also provided about how to simulate altitude training to gain the same positive effects. 

Speaker Biography
Professor Greg Whyte (OBE, PhD, DSc, FACSM, FBASES) was awarded an OBE in 2014 for his services to Sport, Sport Science & Charity, and was voted as one of the Top 10 Science Communicators in the UK by the British Science Council. Professor Whyte is an Olympian in modern pentathlon, and is a European and World Championship medalist. 

He is an expert in the field of sports and exercise science. Graduating from Brunel University, he furthered his studies with an MSc in human performance in the USA and completed his PhD at St. Georges Hospital Medical School, London. Professor Whyte is currently a Professor of Applied Sport and Exercise Science at Liverpool John Moores University and Director of Performance at the Centre for Health and Human Performance. Former roles include Director of Research for the British Olympic Association and Director of Science & Research for the English Institute of Sport. 

Improving Performance Naturally: Sports Science & Medicine Conference for the World’s Leading Sports Scientists and Medical Practitioners in Rowing

The Sports Science & Medicine Conference was held for the first time at the SAS UK & Ireland company headquarters in Marlow. The conference had delegates attend from a variety of Sports Science and Medical disciplines, who travelled from within the UK and around the world – all attracted by an exciting programme which boasts an impressive list of speakers from the leading edge of research and practice. The event was supported by UK Sport and FISA and proved to be a great success.


Elite Rowing: Maintaining Maximum Condition

By: Dr Richard Godfrey and Greg Whyte
From: Elite Rowing: Maintaining Maximum Condition

Dr Richard Godfrey is a Senior Research Lecturer at Brunel University and has previously spent 12 years working as a chief physiologist for the British Olympic Association

Greg Whyte FACSM is director of science and research at the English Institute of Sport

Life at the top – how are elite rowers tested and monitored?

Elite rowers subject their bodies to incredibly high levels of physiological stress. So what kind of testing and monitoring is needed to maintain maximum condition during rowing training without complete breakdown? Richard Godfrey and Greg Whyte explain. 

Olympic rowing events are conducted over a 2,000m course. The event lasts about 320 seconds (s) to 460s, depending upon the number of rowers in the boat and upon competition classification eg heavyweight (now more commonly referred to as ‘open weight’), lightweight, men or women, sculling or rowing. Furthermore, performance, as measured on the water, also depends on external factors, including the environmental conditions ie water temperature, wind speed and direction, and air temperature.
The advent of rowing ergometers has facilitated training by providing a controllable and repeatable tool in the assessment of rowing performance. Performance over 2,000m on a rowing ergometer is dependent upon the functional capacity of both the aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways, with the relative amount of energy derived from anaerobic metabolism being 21-30%(1).
The study of physiological characteristics of rowers has revealed that power at VO2max, VO2 at lactate threshold (LT), maximum power production and power at a blood lactate of 4mmol.L-1 are the most important predictors of 2,000m rowing ergometer performance in elite rowers(2). (The use of power output at 4mmol·L-1 blood lactate level has been used by a number of coaches and is widely agreed to be important predictor of performance.) However, of the measures listed it is generally agreed that power at VO2max is the strongest aerobic correlate of performance (a finding similar to that seen for endurance running). 

Of the short-term maximal effort tests, maximum force and power production are the strongest correlates of rowing performance. Elite rowers sustain, on average, 77% of maximum power during a 2,000m time trial(1). Thus, if all other determinants remain the same, the greater the maximum power, the greater the average power and resultant speed.
The results of ‘off-water’ ergometer studies indicate the importance of higher intensity parameters (power at VO2max and maximum power) in rowing performance. Given this fact, it is perhaps surprising to note that most international teams utilise vast volumes of low intensity training for competition preparation(3). It must be remembered however that sub-maximal economy is important in underpinning power at VO2max, and thus the importance of training that is focused on improving economy and sub-maximal parameters should not be ignored. This type of training typically consists of a number of sessions per week dedicated to lactate threshold training, which has the dual advantage of improving submaximal economy, and improving the power output that can be sustained.

Weight and gender differences

There are significant performance differences between male and female and between heavyweight and lightweight rowers. On the ergometer, researchers have shown that male rowers were on average 7.7% faster than their female counterparts(2). Results from World Championships and World Cup single scull events, suggest that this difference is increased to 10.9% on-water (there are subtle relationships between technique and power delivery which make on-water rowing harder than ergometer rowing, but why the difference is greater between ergometer and on-water rowing in women is not known).
The difference between heavyweight and lightweight rowers was 5.5% on-ergometer compared to 4% on-water. While heavyweights are faster than lightweights, research suggests that any increase in body mass should be primarily composed of functional (lean) mass to effect a change in ergometer/boat speed. This is particularly true for lightweight rowers and requires the right combination of diet, rowing-specific ergometer and on-water work, coupled with weight training, which ensures the development of an appropriate functional mass.
In describing the physiological components that are necessary for good rowing performance it must be remembered that anthropometric (ie height, limb length), technical (ie stroke length, stroke rate) and psychological factors are also crucial elements of that performance. Assessing the physiological aspects of performance is important in the profiling of athletes, as this allows the design of better training programmes, which in turn improves adaptation.
The physiological assessment of the rower should aim to test the range of physiological requirements of rowing performance, both aerobic and anaerobic. The following section outlines the range of tests employed by physiologists to assess elite rowers in laboratory and field (on-water or on ergometers in the boathouse or gym) settings. 

Laboratory testing for rowers

Rowing is a strength-endurance sport with a large aerobic component. A number of endurance sports have been proposed as the ‘most aerobic’, including cross-country skiing and running. But when scaling is used (that is a mathematical technique to allow individuals of different sizes and weights to be compared) then heavyweight rowers come out on top (4,5).
Heavyweight rowers are large individuals with an average height of 1.93m and average weight of 93kg. Although their body fat values tend to be slightly higher than their lightweight team-mates, they still carry considerable muscle mass.
Elite rowers require the ability to generate moderate to high forces and sustain efforts for six minutes (the average time to complete 2,000m in competition at World Championships or Olympic games). Physiology support in the laboratory is therefore designed to examine the current conditioned state of the individual with respect to body composition, muscle power and force, aerobic power and sustainable percentage of maximal aerobic power.
Body composition testing is particularly important for lightweight rowers because they cannot afford to be carrying excess ‘non-functional’ weight (ie body fat).
As mentioned previously, it is important to measure maximal aerobic power (VO2max) and the percentage of maximal aerobic power that can be sustained. To do this the discontinuous incremental protocol (commonly referred to as a ‘step-test to max’ and shown in figure 1) is the usual test used.
In the lab, testing occurs on a Concept 2 Model C rowing ergometer, the kind of rowing machine found in most health clubs. There is a difference however, as (unlike the standard rowers) the lab ergometer is also fitted with a special force transducer at the handle, so that the force produced by the rower can be directly and very accurately measured.
On this equipment, a test is first carried out to examine strength and power. Before the test begins the rower performs a 10-minute warm-up followed by some light stretching. A specific warm-up is then completed using hard efforts of two, three, and four strokes prior to starting the test. For the test itself, the rower is instructed to carry out seven strokes as hard as possible at a rate of 30 strokes per minute. From this test, work (in joules), mean force (in newtons), mean power (in watts), stroke rate (strokes per minute, spm) and stroke length (in metres) are reported from the last five strokes.
Elite rowers are often asked to perform 2,000m time trials on the ergometer in training, and so will have a recent 2,000m time. If a young rower visits the lab for the first time it can be difficult to know what intensity to start the step test at. However, a means of determining this has been devised.
The time for 2,000m should be converted into a 500m split time. For heavyweight men and women add 15 seconds to this time and you have the split for the third stage of the step-test. For the power output that equates to the time for stage 3, subtract 25 watts to get the power output (and split time) for stage 2 and subtract 50 watts for stage 1. For stage 4 add 25 watts and for stage 5 add 50 watts. For lightweight men and women, also add 15 seconds to the calculated 500m split time to find the split for the third stage. However, it may be more appropriate to use 15-20 watt increments (rather than a 25 watt increment) to calculate subsequent stage workloads(5).
During the step test the rower wears a heart rate monitor and a mouthpiece for collection and analysis of expired air, and every four minutes the rower stops to have an earlobe blood sample taken for blood lactate analysis.
The heart rate associated with LT can be used to determine a number of heart rate zones that can be used for training, and, after a few weeks, improvements in endurance are detected as a rightward shift of the lactate curve.
For the final stage of testing, the individual is asked to cover the furthest distance possible (at a relatively even pace) in four minutes. Traditionally, laboratory-based blood lactate measuring equipment such as Analox, Yellow Springs or Eppendorf lactate analysers have been preferred, as their validity and reliability has been tested and is well known. Although it is possible to use new ‘palm top’ lactate analysers, their validity and reliability continue to be questioned.
The data collected and calculated from the step test includes VO2max, power at VO2max, the percentage of maximum that can be sustained (ie at lactate threshold as a percentage of VO2max), power at LT and power at reference blood lactate vales of 2 and 4mmol.L-1

Field-testing for rowers

Many elite sports routinely enjoy a physiology support programme and hence, coaches and athletes have greater experience of sports science. As a result, coaches in many sports are increasingly demanding that field-based testing replace laboratory-based testing. However, coaches and athletes rarely have the training and experience of professional sports scientists and, while many physiologists are not averse to an increase in the use of field-testing, it is very difficult to justify the elimination of laboratory-based testing altogether.
Laboratory-based testing provides an objective set of data collected under standardised conditions(5). This level of standardisation and objectivity could never be achieved in the field. However, field-based data has greater sports specificity, something which is very difficult, or is impossible, to achieve in a laboratory-based simulation of the sport. Accordingly, GB elite rowers are still lab tested two to three times per year with 4-5 field-based (step-test) sessions. To supplement this, the coach also carries out some performance tests such as, 18km, 30minute, 2km or 250m rows. On some occasions blood samples can be taken (by a physiologist) at the end of such rows, or the 18km row can be broken into 3 x 6km rows with a 30-60 second rest interval for blood samples to be taken.
At field camps overseas, early morning monitoring is routinely carried out prior to daily training. This involves the measurement of urine concentration to monitor hydration status, blood urea, body mass and resting heart rate to examine how the athlete is coping with the physical stress of exposure to a new, often extreme, environment, coupled with normal training. All of these measures are viewed in combination with a psychological inventory and some discussion with the coach and athlete. As a result, the coach decides on whether any modification of training is required for certain individuals as a consequence of this plus on-water and gym-based data.

Altitude camps

Originating in Eastern Europe, the use of altitude training camps in rowing has become commonplace. Elite rowers may ascend to altitude for training camps lasting up to 3 weeks on as many as three occasions per year. Altitude results in a lower availability of oxygen to the working muscles, due to lower barometric pressures, and this reduced availability of oxygen results in an increased physiological stress both at rest and during exercise.
The primary purpose of altitude training is to capitalise on the adaptations associated with this increased physiological stress, which is suggested to increase red cell mass and haemoglobin concentration and hence, increase oxygen carrying capacity.
Unfortunately, these adaptations come at a price; altitude has a number of undesirable effects that can affect the health and performance of the rower including; sleep disturbance, dehydration, glycogen depletion, immune suppression and an increased incidence of illness including upper respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal upsets. Altitude training can even lead to a reduction in performance due to a relative deconditioning associated with an enforced lowering of training intensity(6).
It is for these reasons that monitoring rowers at altitude is crucial to optimise the beneficial effects and reduce the adverse effects of low oxygen availability. Physiological monitoring of the rower at altitude is based upon assessing sleep quality, recovery, hydration and training intensities. Recent advances in the simulation of high altitude environments at sea level by reducing partial oxygen pressure (ie reduced O2 concentration) in chambers, tents and face masks has led to new opportunities in the use of hypoxia (low oxygen) for training and competition(6).


The functional capacities of the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems are important in 2,000m rowing, and performance and power at VO2max, VO2 at lactate threshold, power at a blood lactate of 4mmol.L-1 and maximum power production are the most important predictors of 2,000m rowing ergometer performance in elite rowers. Laboratory-based testing is centred on step and maximum power tests and body composition assessment, while field-testing includes ‘on-water’ tests such as 18km, 30minute, 2km or 250m rows and lactate measurement following set pieces.


Olympic Marathon – Anatomy of a Medal

By: Joe I. Vigil, Ph.D, 14 October, 2005
From: Cool Running
Site link: The Anatomy of a Medal

The Anatomy of a Medal

One of the most compelling success stories of the Athens Olympics was the performance of the U.S. Team in the Marathon. These outstanding performances were the result of not only exceptional talent and discipline on behalf of the athletes, but impeccable planning and application of 21st century sports science. 


Deena Kastor

Related info:
Peak Running Performance

By Joe I. Vigil, Ph.D.
Posted Friday, 14 October, 2005 

This article deals not only with the application of science and training methodology, but also the athlete/coach interrelationship, vital for the success in any athletic endeavor. Although Team Running USA had two medalists in the Marathon – Deena Kastor (Bronze) and Meb Keflezighi (Silver), this article will deal with the specifics of the training progression of Deena Kastor.

This success was not an overnight achievement. It started 20 years ago when Deena’s involvement in age group athletics first started. From the very beginning, she showed signs of things to come. After winning several California state high school championships, she enrolled at the University of Arkansas. Her collegiate career was good but not exceptional. She earned several “All American” recognitions in both Cross Country and Track & Field, but she never won a national championship. The outstanding talent she displayed as a high school runner was never realized in college.

I first met Deena when she competed for the U.S. Jr. Cross Country Team in the World Championships in Aix Le Baines, France. In our first meeting, we developed an instant mutual respect. I learned that at the completion of her University of Arkansas studies, Deena found herself with a burning desire to continue her training. Like most, she dreamed of one day running in the Olympics and, at the urging of her Arkansas Assistant Coach, Mylan Donley, she contacted me. At first I was reluctant to work with her, but her persistence, hunger for high goals, and willingness to relocate to Alamosa, Colorado (7543¢ altitude) persuaded me to take her on. Hence, a team was formed.

Qualities Necessary for Success

I believe it was the best professional move either one of us has ever made. Her accomplishments the last eight-ten years (1996-2005) have been spectacular. The qualities necessary for this level of success and the progression of her physiologic profile came at a great price.

As with all members of Team Running USA, we required that all athletes strive to:

1.  Improve Personal Relationships

2.  Improve Achievement Motivation

3.  Improve the Quality of Their Mini and Macro Environments

4.  Improve Their Athletic Maturity

5.  Show Integrity to Their Value System

6.  Display a Commitment to Their Mission

7.  Practice Abundance by Giving Back to Their Sport and Team

If I were to operationally define the qualities an athlete must possess to be successful, Deena would epitomize those qualities. She is a great example of mind/body autonomy working in harmony to reach set goals. She truly believes and adheres to the principle of unending improvement and the setting and achieving of even higher goals.

Increases in Volume

Knowing that I had an athlete willing to go the extra mile, we started working on the physiologic variable that would allow her to compete at the international level. Previously, she was only running 40-50 miles a week, which certainly was not enough volume to compete at her desired level. We increased that volume to 70 miles per week (MPW) for the next 15 months. This allowed for gradual adaptation without any resulting injuries or setbacks. At this point, she had a VO2 MAX of 70.2 mls. (VO2 MAX is the maximum amount of oxygen in milliliters your body can use in one minute per kilogram of body weight, i.e. the higher the better). We next increased her volume to 90 miles a week over the next 18 months. Her VO2 MAX jumped to 77.5 mls. During this time period, she was making her mark nationally and had won a national championship in Cross Country. Again, we increased her volume to 100-110 miles per week and, not surprisingly, her VO2 MAX was at 81.3 mls. This level of fitness is attained by very few athletes and is one of the highest ever recorded in an American athlete.

Presently, we maintain an average of 100 mpw ±10 and adjust that volume in accordance with the competitions she will enter. The volume can be as low as 70 mpw for track races to 140 mpw for a marathon. Because of our precise planning, she handles this volume manipulation very well.

We both knew VO2 MAX was important, but even more so was the increase of anaerobic threshold (AT - the point at which lactic acid starts to accumulate in your muscles). Since this became an important training objective, we incorporated the AT runs, sometimes referred to as tempo runs. We started with four miles and over a period of time, increased to six, eight, and ten miles. If we were preparing for a marathon, she would run 12-13 mile AT runs. We thoroughly believed that the longer the run, the greater the stress, the greater the consequent adaptation.

A noticeable observation was made over the five-six year period of increased volume; her AT velocity increased profoundly. She went from an initial 5:24 per mile pace to 5:11 to 5:01. I would like to state that volume runs, when combined with a regular diet of AT runs, are the most important workouts for the development of the endurance component. This brought about a profound increase in her running economy.

Equipped with these two remarkable qualities (increased VO2 uptake and increased anaerobic threshold), any athlete can then embark on running and competing at the international level. We must keep in mind that these increases were brought about through gradual adaptation to stress. As we worked together on a day-to-day basis, Deena learned to listen to her body and knew exactly what her perceived exertion was at a given pace.

Training Priorities

After each human performance test, we had accurate information on her velocity at VO2 MAX (vVO2), anaerobic threshold velocity (ATV), lactate max, lactate at threshold, max heart rate (HR Max) and heart rate at threshold velocity. Armed with this information, we got her vVO2 (which was 4:27 for the mile). This figure would help us in determining her goals for the 3000, 5000, 10000 and the Marathon. We also determined that her fractionalization (VO2 at threshold velocity divided by VO2 MAX) was a percent we would like to improve. We followed the protocol below in determining goals:

  • 3000 Meters 7-12 Minute Effort 100% vVO2
  • 5000 Meters 13-17 Minute Effort 95% vVO2
  • 10000 Meters 26-38 Minute Effort 90% vVO2
  • Marathon 2:06-2:30 80-85% vVO2

This information was deemed extremely accurate, as Deena was only off two seconds in her AR in the 10000 and Meb1.93 seconds in his 10000 AR. After determining their fractionalization (Deena 83% and Meb 81%), we established their goals for the Marathon. Again, Meb missed it by only three seconds and Deena by only 1 minute 16 seconds. Our objective for the future will be to increase fractionalization by utilizing volume and AT runs at the appropriate distance and velocity.

Altitude Training

The record has shown that since 1968, 95% of all Olympic and World Championship medals from the 800 through the Marathon were won by athletes who lived or trained at altitude. It can therefore be concluded that altitude training is necessary for success in endurance events. I have lived all my life at altitude in Alamosa, Colorado (7543¢) and it was easy for me to become a true believer in altitude training. The observations I have made and my background in physiology has shown me that there is a distinct advantage to altitude training.

Over the past 30 years, I have hosted individuals and entire federations for their altitude training. The successes include World records, Olympic medals and personal bests. Most of the distance running world has bought this philosophy. It has, however, been difficult to convince most American coaches and athletes, though there are a few that believe.

When Team Running USA was organized in 2000, Bob Larsen and I were hired to run the program. We both believed in altitude training and incorporated three-four altitude training blocks of one month or longer in our annual training plan. We selected Mammoth Lakes, California (8000-10,000¢) as our official high altitude training camp. We also tried to hold our camps prior to major events so they could go down to sea level with the greatest amount of oxygen carrying capacity possible.

Deena had spent four years (1996-2000) in Alamosa when we made our move to Mammoth Lakes, CA. The next four years (2001-2005) gave her a greater adaptation to altitude and she was capable of training at even high altitudes (9000¢), which she did frequently. On occasion, we would go to sea level to train at ARCO OTC in San Diego. This was also the site for all of our testing protocols. We were, however, altitude-based the majority of the time.

By living and training at altitude, athletes expect to get an increase in their red blood cell mass and hemoglobin, which enhance the athletes’ oxygen carrying capacity. These factors allow the athlete to perform and train more effectively upon return to lower elevations.

Olympic Event Decision

Upon consideration of all the negatives and positives of the geophysical conditions we would encounter in Athens, 11 months prior to the games, Deena decided on the Marathon. I believe she could have done as well had she selected the 10000 meters, but her choice proved to be a wise. We began by running Olympic Trials for protection against injury. This way she would be assured of making the Olympic Team. She decided to dedicate 11 months to the best and most difficult training she ever had, as well as competing a minimal number of times. The focus for the year was to medal in the Marathon. She, along with her three training partners, Colin Steele, Joe Eckerly and Derek Tate, put together 14 weeks (See Table 1) of excellent training that produced a fitness level she had not previously experienced.


Table 1.This table illustrates progression in weekly volume. It can be utilized by more experienced marathoners who can handle the increased volume.

Critical Zone Training

Critical Zone Training (CZT) is a phrase coined to identify training requirements for success at the Olympic Games, World Championships or specific high quality events. The training demands are specific to the event and incorporate the times athletes must achieve in practice to be able to compete at the above levels.

The average times in the Marathon for the previous four Olympic Games and five World Championships were 2:26:45 for First, 2:27:34 for Second and 2:28:16 for Third. Our goal was to medal, so we had to train to achieve these times under all conditions. The topography of the Marathon course in Athens is shown in Figure 1:


Figure 1: Profile of Athens Olympic Marathon Course

One can observe the torturous eight-mile incline from 18000 meters to 31000 meters. I found a very similar course close to Mammoth Lakes, where nearly all aspects were identical. The one difference was that it was at 7000-8000¢ altitude. We ran it seven times prior to Athens at a pace that was altitude-adjusted. The course in Athens presented no psychological barrier for Deena.

To meet the extreme demands of heat and humidity, we did three things:

1.  We wore extra clothing in practice.

2.  We practiced on fluid intake on our long runs every 15 minutes for 11 months.

3.  We went to Crete two weeks prior to the Games to acclimate to the heat and humidity.

While training in Crete, we encountered extremely hot weather, always around 98°-104°F. We adjusted our workouts by running hard early in the day and easier in the late afternoons. As the days passed by, we progressively moved the intense workouts toward the time that the Marathon was going to be contested. Crete is in the same time zone as Athens, so our circadian rhythms had 14-17 days to adapt to the time zone of the competition. Constant reinforcement in hydration, rest and diet was carried through to the end.

As expected, the temperature at race time was 102° (120° asphalt) and 54% humidity at 6pm. As with other marathons, Deena knew she was going to have to exercise complete emotional control throughout the race. This is a quality she displayed beautifully, as the race results indicated.

Deena’s support team included her husband, Andrew (Physical Therapist) and three training partners. In Figure 1, the last 14 weeks shows her volume and taper prior to the race. The daily sessions of ancillary work (core, plyometrics, strength, flexibility) and agility drills over a number of years made her an exceptionally well-prepared athlete. Our specific training program consisted of the following training intensities:

Training Intensities

1.  Basic Speed/Power: From 60 to 100 up to 400M speed endurance. Below 200M, all out at 300-400M race pace early. Then pick up pace with each repetition. This workout aids in the development of running form, running mechanics and event-specific running economy.

2.  Lactate Threshold: Training runs of 20-60 minutes at 85-87% of HR or 85-87% of vVO2 aids in developing a high level of aerobic threshold.

3.  High-End Aerobic Endurance: Endurance training at 70-80% of maximum HR or 75-80% of vVO2. The duration of runs should be 30 minutes to three hours. The runs should be on soft surfaces and hills. Negative split effort is most desirable.

4.  MVO2: Development of maximum volume of oxygen at 90-95% HR or 90% of vVO2. Three minutes to eight-ten minute duration or repetitions of 800, 1K, 2K and 3K. We use two minute intervals between repetitions at sea level and three minutes at altitude. These runs develop peripheral training adaptations, increase fat metabolism, increase concentration of aerobic enzymes, mitochondria and capillarization.

5.  Recovery: Low intensity runs 25-30 BPM below lactate threshold HR. The runs are from 45 minutes 1 hour 20 minutes and can be run both in the AM and PM. It promotes recovery following high intensity workouts. This run energizes the athlete for the next hard workout.

It is extremely important that the athlete and coach orchestrate the Five Training Intensities so they have proper recovery and maintain enthusiasm for the challenges to come. Table 2 exhibits the plan we employed:

The Deena Kastor File


Olympic Medal

Marathon Bronze (2:27:20)

Athens Greece


World Record

5K Road (14:54)

Carlsbad, CA


Track Record

10,000 meters (30:50:32)

Palo Alto, CA


American Road Records

Half Marathon Women Only (1:10:08)
5K Road (14:54)
15K Gate River Run (47:15)
Marathon (2:21:16)
8K LaSalle Bank (24:36)

Virginia Beach, VA
Carlsbad, CA
Jacksonville, FL
London England
Chicago, IL


National Championships

3 Track
6 Road
3 Cross Country


World Cross Country Medals

Individual Silver
Individual Silver

Team Silver
Team Silver

Dublin, Ireland
Lausanne, Switzerland

Dublin, Ireland
Lausanne, Switzerland



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