Entries in Health (4)


Avoiding and managing seasonal illness

By Richard Budgett, Paul Davies and Rod Jaques

The average adult experiences between one and six bouts of the common cold each year and it is estimated that at any given time one in sixty adults in the UK will be suffering from a cold infection.  Influenza, whilst not as common, still affects an estimated 10-15 % of the population annually.  The good news for recreationally active athletes is that their incidences of colds and flu seem to be lower than that of the general population.  The bad news for the harder training rowers is that their risk of contracting a winter illness seems to be even greater than that of the population at large.

What is a cold?

The common cold is a viral infection that can be caused by any one of up to 250 strains of virus, the most common group of which is the rhinovirus (rhino referring to the nose).  Rhinoviruses are estimated to be responsible for anywhere between a third and one half of all common colds.  Typically the rhinovirus will invade the mucus of the nose, where it rapidly reproduces.

It is this reproduction of the virus, and your body’s immune reaction to it, that causes the feelings commonly associated with a cold; including fatigue, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, sneezing and mildly swollen glands.

For most people the acute symptoms of a cold will last somewhere between four and seven days, although complications such as sinusitis and bronchitis can prolong the illness and make it more unpleasant.

How does a cold differ from flu?

Influenza (or flu) is also a viral infection, however a much more serious and malevolent virus causes it.  Whilst the common cold virus targets the nose and the upper part of the respiratory tract, influenza infects the upper and/or lower respiratory passages.  The risk of associated complications, such as bacterial pneumonia, are much greater with influenza than with colds, making it a much more worrying condition.

The symptoms of influenza often include headache, fever, muscular pain (myalgia) and weakness.  In addition to these, joint pain, sensitivity to light, nausea and vomiting may also be experienced.  The major differences between cold and flu are that colds rarely cause a fever or body aches, cold symptoms are more likely to be confined above the neck and are less likely to appear suddenly.

How do we contract a cold or flu?

As cold and flu viruses are commonly transmitted through the eyes, mouth, nose and respiratory passages, they are easily transferred by touch, or by contact with aerosols (airborne particles) that are created by coughing or sneezing.

How to avoid contracting a winter illness

•  Avoid  the virus altogether

Obviously a lack of exposure to the virus will dramatically reduce the chances of contracting an infection, however avoiding the virus is not always that easy.  The best method of reducing contact with the virus is giving cold sufferers a wide berth.  Research shows that children suffer from more colds per year than adults, bad news if you are a school teacher or if you have to travel on public transport that serves local schools.

•  Hand washing

Cold viruses are often introduced into the body from the hands and it is easy to pick up viruses by touching contaminated surfaces, or by shaking hands with infected individuals.  Regular and thorough hand washing throughout the day will reduce your chances of infection.  It is also wise to avoid unnecessary contact between the hands and the nose, eyes and mouth, especially if you have been in an environment where the virus may have been rife.

•  Immunosuppression

Whilst short duration, moderate intensity exercise seems to have little effect upon the body’s immune system (it may even bolster it) longer, more demanding workouts have been shown to cause a suppression of the immune system that can last several hours after exercise.

This finding has lead several researchers to suggest that there is an open window to infection in the hours that follow prolonged workouts.  Others have suggested that when training sessions are performed frequently the immune system may not be given enough time to return back to normal.  This means that the open window may be extended over even greater periods of time, making the hard training athlete even more susceptible to the onset of illness. If this is the case then athletes need to be particularly vigilant during periods of long, hard training.

Typical advice given to athletes at risk includes ensuring adequate rest between sessions, tailoring a training programme that does not leave you feeling overtired, and reducing both physiological and psychological stress during the time of year when colds and winter illnesses are most virulent.

Dietary considerations

A poor diet is one of the biggest factors contributing to a badly functioning immune system.  The absence of certain identifiable vitamins and minerals, such as those contained within fruit and vegetables, has been linked with immunosuppression.  Because of this many studies have investigated the links between various food and vitamin supplements and the immune system.  Examples of supplements studied include; glutamine, vitamin C, zinc, dietary fat and dietary carbohydrate.  Unfortunately, the results of many of these studies are contradictory, making it almost impossible for solid recommendations to be made.

Of the supplements listed above it would appear that carbohydrate is the one that deserves the greatest attention.  There are an increasing number of research studies that show that immunosuppression occurs in response to conditions of low blood glucose and depleted muscle glycogen.  Recent studies have shown that maintaining blood glucose levels during exercise, by consuming a carbohydrate drink for example, can reduce or even prevent the immunosuppression often seen after prolonged exercise.

What to do if you pick up an illness

There may be occasions where, despite your best efforts, a virus manages to get a hold in your system. When this happens the first task is to identify whether you are suffering from a cold or from flu, as the recommendations for dealing with each illness will be different.

If the symptoms are localised above the neck and do not include a fever light exercise may actually help to speed recovery. In this situation it is recommended that very low intensity exercise be performed for a period of five to seven days until the symptoms have disappeared. After this time training load can be gradually built up over a period of three days, with full training being resumed on the fourth day if symptoms are completely cleared and recovery is complete. The temptation to resume hard training too early is a dangerous one, as hard exercise performed at this time will increase the likelihood of a secondary infection such as bronchitis or sinusitis.

Presence of symptoms below the neck suggests a more severe and widespread infection. In this instance a medical opinion should be sought and a period of complete rest for between three and seven days is recommended. Following this, if the symptoms have reduced such that aches, fever, fatigue and productive cough are no longer present, light exercise may be performed.

This light exercise should be continued for a period of a further five to seven days, then, if symptoms have completely resolved, a gradual escalation of training up to normal levels can occur.  Again, returning to hard training too soon after an illness such flu will leave the body more susceptible to secondary infection and may even result in debilitating Post Viral Fatigue.

If you are unlucky enough to get struck down by a cold or the flu this winter take pity on your colleagues and training companions by putting yourself into quarantine.  People are usually at their most infectious at the start of a cold so it may be prudent to hide yourself away at this time.  Try not to see your illness as lost time, make the most of it by using your freetime to stretch drink plenty of fluids and more importantly relax.  Your body will thank you for it in the long run.

For those athletes subject to in and out of competition testing it is important to know that certain banned substances may appear in cough remedies and mixtures, and advice should be sought before taking any new medication or supplement.


Dr Rod Jaques is Medical Officer at the British Olympic Centre and also to the English Institute of Sport in Bath and the British Triathlon Association.

Paul Davies is a BASES Accredited Exercise Physiologist and Lecturer in Exercise Physiology and Sports Nutrition at Edge Hill College, Lancashire. He worked with many of the Nations top sportsmen and women at the British Olympic Medical Centre.

Dr Richard Budgett is Director of Medical Services of the British Olympic Association and Chairman of the ARA Medical Committee.

This article was previously published in Triathlon magazine.


Sleep and it's Importance in Rowing

From: usrowingjrs.org

By: Steve Hargis

Take a look at the US Junior Rowing page. It is an excellent resource for those who are looking at being competitive junior rowers or coaches.

The article below is an important oversite by many athletes and coaches who tend to take this for granted. This can be a cause of Unexplained Under Performance Syndrome or over-reaching.

Why is sleep important?

Several studies have shown that individuals who engage in regular bouts of physical activity have an increased need for total sleep time and for slow-wave (Stage 3 & 4) sleep.  Repair and growth are maximized during these stages since non-growth-related metabolic activity is reduced while the pituitary releases growth hormones.

What happens if you don’t get enough sleep?

Individuals deprived of 30 hours of sleep show an 11% reduction in cardiovascular function, and those deprived of 50 hours of sleep show a 20% reduction.  Unfortunately, sleep deprivation is likely cumulative, so if an athlete needing 8 hours of sleep per night gets only 6 hours, she will see a significant degradation in performance after only 15 days.  Sleep deprivation also results in a 20% reduction in the detection/reaction response, and an even greater reduction in cognitive tasks involving learning, memory, logical reasoning and decision-making.  Finally, sleep deprivation has been associated with increased levels of depression, stress, anxiety, worry and frustration.

How much sleep do you need?

To determine how much sleep an athlete needs, ideally she would spend a week or two going to bed at a consistent time, waking up naturally without the use of an alarm, and recording how long she slept each night until she reaches a consistent number of hours.  Since this test is difficult to complete in practice (especially while in college!), answering “yes” to two or more questions on the following sleep quiz indicates a need for more sleep than you are currently getting:

• Do you frequently fall asleep if given a sleep opportunity (eg. in class, in movies, other quiet, dark environments)
• Do you usually need an alarm clock to wake you?
• Do you tend to “catch up” on sleep on the weekends?
• Once awake do you feel tired most mornings?
• Do you frequently take naps during the day?

How can you increase the quality of your sleep?

Keeping a regular sleep schedule is the most important means of improving sleep quality.  Inconsistent sleep patterns cause disruptions to one’s internal clock, and increases the amount of time it takes to fall asleep.  Once a regular bedtime has been established, adjustments to earlier or later should be limited to 30 minutes per night.  Similarly, athletes should wake up within an hour of their normal wake-up time, even on weekends.

Creating a high-quality sleep environment that is quiet, dark, cool and comfortable is also important.  Student athletes might establish a quiet policy in their suite after a certain hour, post a “Do Not Disturb Sign” on their door, or use ear plugs or a fan to mask noise.  Turning electronic devices such as clocks and computers away from the bed, using window blinds, and stuffing towels under the door to block hallway light may help create a darker environment.  Opening a window or using a fan can help to cool a room, while additional blankets can help if a room is too cold. 




Coaching the Athlete with Diabetes

Dr. Craig Stewart, Montana State University, MT, USA

Website: CoachesInfo


My first encounter with an athlete with diabetes was when coaching an Under 14 competitive soccer team. I thought I had reviewed all the medical releases thoroughly, but soon discovered I had missed a very important detail. After competing in two matches some two hundred miles from home, the team and I stopped for fast food, got in the van and started the four-hour drive home. My goalkeeper was in the passenger seat next to me, and I paid no attention to him as he completed his meal and put on his head-phones. A little later, I was distracted by him taking a small satchel from his 'keeper' bag. He proceeded to pull down his warm-ups and inject himself in the upper thigh with a medical syringe. Fortunately, I have a background in special education and, having taught in public schools, was not distracted to a degree that I drove off the interstate. However, as I visited with him, I was extremely concerned that a player I had known for a significant period had Type 1 diabetes and was required to carefully monitor both his caloric intake and 'blood sugar' levels throughout the day. When necessary, he injected himself with insulin to counter any imbalances that occurred.


Both the incidence of obesity and diabetes are on the rise in the USA. It has been estimated that obesity in children has increased over 25% in the last decade. While Type 1 diabetes is more associated with children than type 2, the number of athletes who are competing with some type of diabetes should follow the trend of an increase like obesity. When combined with the continued growth in youth participation in sport, it is imperative that all coaches be aware of issues related to care of athletes with diabetes.
Diabetes; The condition: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body either fails to produce insulin (Type 1) or the body is unable to utilize all or some of what is produced (Type 2). Insulin is a hormone that is produced in the pancreas and functions to regulate glucose ('blood sugar') that is ingested into the intestine and absorbed into the blood. Glucose is the primary source of energy in the human organism, and if it is not all used, then it is stored as glycogen in the liver and, to some degree, in the muscles.
In Type 1 diabetes, the body is not making insulin at all; therefore, the individual via syringe, or in some cases, an insulin pump, injects it. This type of diabetes usually is diagnosed before age 30 and only affects about 10% of the individuals with diabetes. However, those who have Type 1 usually are at greater risk for some of the serious side effects of the condition.
Type 2 diabetes usually occurs later in life (after age 40), is highly related to obesity (about 80% of individuals diagnosed with Type 2 are obese) and is usually controlled by some combination of oral medication and the coordination of calorie intake and exercise.
While the two types are different in many respects, the primary symptoms prior to diagnosis are the same. An individual with undiagnosed or untreated diabetes could exhibit frequent urination, excessive thirst, blurred vision, unusual fatigue, weight loss and slow healing of wounds (especially on the extremities). It is extremely important that coaches be aware of these symptoms and refer their concerns to either the parents or the medical staff associated with the team. If undiagnosed, the athlete may suffer severe permanent organ damage.

Medical conditions and potential side effects

An athlete with either type diabetes can compete at the highest levels if proper care is taken. However, even diabetes that is thought to be under control has the potential to cause serious health problems. The primary concern for the athlete who thinks her/his diabetes is being successfully managed is hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). It is possible for an athlete to overdose on insulin or under eat in relationship to the caloric needs. In that case he/she could experience unusual hunger, sweating, loss of concentration, heart palpations, and nausea. Most individuals with an understanding of their condition are well prepared with some type of easily digested carbohydrate (candy, juice, pop, etc) that can counter the early symptoms. With younger athletes or even on away games, the coach has to be prepared with the same type of food that can be given in an emergency.
Hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar) is not only a symptom of both types of diabetes, but can be exacerbated by exercise in some cases. Over time, uncontrolled hyperglycemia can, in addition to aforementioned problems, cause ketoacidosis or an increase in ketones in the blood. In either situation of high levels of glucose or ketones in the blood, the athlete should not participate in exercise or athletic events until both are controlled by medical staff.

Other concerns

Knowledge: Responsible coaches will be as knowledgeable as possible about the overall health of all their athletes. One can never assume that medical records and parent release forms are valid or current. Coaches must go to any length to ensure they know of any health issues of their athletes.

In the case of an athlete with diabetes, coaches must know
a) what type
b) how medicated
c) diet considerations, both in relationship to day to day activities, and in the case of drastic increases in caloric expenditures related to sport participation
d) other side effects
One of the effects of diabetes that can have a direct effect on athletic participation is a visional problem including sensitivity to bright sunlight. In the case of my young goalkeeper, by the time he was a varsity athlete his coaches had to present referees with a written medical explanation to referees for him to be allowed to play wearing wrap-around shades.
Other possible physical side effects are the need for hydration and the care of any sites on the extremities for infection. Hydration is an important factor for any athlete, but in the athlete with diabetes it is even more important. The strain that the condition places on the body to maintain homeostasis is severe. In an attempt to eliminate excess glucose, athletes with diabetes will urinate more than normal. The fluid lost must be replaced immediately to prevent further damage and a reduction in performance.
In addition to the strain on the kidneys and total body hydration, an athlete with diabetes is also at risk for infections. The ability of the body to fight infections is compromised by diabetes. Therefore, coaches must be aware of cuts or scraps suffered by the athlete, as well as, blisters or 'hot spots' on their feet. Even greater care than normal should be given to these seemingly 'minor' medical issues. They should be referred to the team medical staff or discussed with parents as soon as possible. It is highly recommended that athletes have extra clean, dry socks at all practices and matches to assist in foot care.
STRESS - the final concern: A coach of an athlete with diabetes should also be aware of the unique relationship between increased levels of stress and hormonal changes in the body. In the normal individual, one of the basic adjustments to stress (even good stress such as increased excitement prior to an important match) is an increase in some hormonal levels which may result in elevated glucose levels. The "fight or flight' syndrome prepares our body to meet the challenge or escapeÉ as quickly as possible. There is no reason to believe that an athlete who has diabetes would react any differently. Unfortunately, the sudden increase in hormones may work again this athlete. Knowledge of this phenomenon by both the coach and the athlete will assist both in meeting the medical challenge as well as the athletic ones.


There have been numerous athletes who have had successful, productive careers and dealt with their diabetic conditions. Coaches need to be aware of the potential of an increase in the number of athletes they might encounter and how to ensure safe and successful athletic careers.
Careful coordination and communication between the athlete, his or her family and their physician with the coach and the medical staff of the athletic program is essential. Diabetes is an extremely serious health condition, but with the proper precautions, it should not affect most athletes who suffer from it.


Diabetes and Stress. Retrieved January 29, 2003 from http://www.diabetes.org/main/homepage.jsp
Diabetic Ketoacidosis, The Merck Manual. Retrieved January 29, 2003 from http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section2/chapter13/13b.htm
Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Retrieved January 29, 2003 from http://www.pharmacy.gov.my/self_care_guide/miscellaneous/ (the Diabetes Mellitus.pdf)
Ebeling, P.; Tuominen, J. ; Bourey, R.; Koranyi, L.; & Koivisto, V. (1995) Athletes with IDDM exhibit impaired metabolic control and increased lipid utilization with no increase in insulin sensitivity. (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) Diabetes, v44 n4 p471(7)
Fahey, P.J.; Stallkamp, E.T & Kwatra, S. (1996). The athlete with type I DIABETES: managing insulin, diet and exercise. American Family Physician. v53 n5 p1611(9)
Healthy habits to help manage and prevent type 2 diabetes (Nutrition Fact Sheet) (2002) Journal of American Dietetic Association. Nov. v 102, i11,p1725(2).
Hormones of the Pancreas. Retrieved January 29, 2003 from http://www.users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Pancreas.html
Hornsby, W.G. & Albright, A.L. (2003) Diabetes . In Durstine, J.L & Moore, G.E. , editors. Exercise Management for Persons with Chronic Diseases and Disabilities, 2nd edition, (pp.133-141) Champaign, Ill., Human Kinetic Press.
Leski, Mark, M.D. Diabetes in the Active Population (book chapter excerpt) Retrieved January 29, 2003 from http://www.med.sc.edu:1082/pdf%20files/Diabetes%20in%20the%20active%20population.pdf
Nelson, K.M., Reiber, G. & Boyko, E.J. (2002) Diet and exercise among adults with type 2 diabetes: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES III). Diabetes Care. v25, i10, p1722(7).
The diabetes prevention program (DPP): description of lifestyle intervention. (2002) Diabetes Care. v25,i12,p2165(7).
Safety Tips. Retrieved January 29, 2003 from http://www.diabetes.org/main/health/exercise/safety/25ways.jsp
Sherman, M.; Ferrara, C. & Schneider, B. (1996). Nutritional strategies to optimize athletic performance. Clinical Diabetes, v14 n1 p3(6)


Maximise You – 10 Tips for Coach Well Being

Ann Quinn (Quintessential Edge, London, UK)
ITF Coaching and Sport Science Review 2010; 50 (18): 3 - 4


This article summarises some tips to help you maximise the most important person of all – you, so that you can enjoy the journey to your success both on and off the court.

Key words: Coach well being, health, self improvement.

Corresponding author: ann@annquinn.com.


Research into coaching has increased considerably over the last two decades but an area that is still in its infancy has been that of the well being of professional coaches. Much is expected of you as a coach. On any given day, you may play the role of a coach, educator, physiologist, business executive, psychologist, administrator, and so the list goes on. You are always busy planning and giving lessons, organising teams and competitions, running the pro shop, or watching matches, and that is just at work. On top of that is often family, community and a host of other commitments and often the last on the list is You! Does that sound familiar? Well you are not alone.


We evaluate our players, their strengths and weaknesses and prepare regular report updates but what are you doing for you? Do you really know how healthy you are? How long is it since you have had a blood test, checked your cholesterol and blood pressure, or had a full medical check up? Have you been to the dentist or had your eyes checked recently? Just because you are fit and active and on the court, does not mean you are invincible and nothing will happen to you. Tennis coaches on average suffer from levels of burnout similar to those of other helping professionals. (Eklund, Kelly & Ritter-Taylor, 1999). The pressure and stre levels juggling your own business and other obligations can be enormous. You are no help to anyone if you are sick, stressed and exhausted. The most valuable asset you have is your health.


Create the vision of exactly where you want to go so you can get excited to move towards that direction. Make those goals inspiring and compelling. See it day in and day out. What you would like to achieve for your players, for your business? Set your goals and create that vision plan for that exciting future because that is where you are going to spend the rest of your life. Working towards such important life goals is associated with increased well being. (Klinger, 1977; Sheldon, Kasser, Smith & Share, 2002) Make it happen!


We all tell our players to warm up and prepare for their matches and training but do you prepare to coach or do you just walk on the court and start coaching? The time taken to warm up is much better than spent off the court injured. Likewise, do you put on sunscreen and a hat if you working in a hot climate? Not too many coaches could say they do this properly. Sunscreen should be reapplied every two hours, or more often if it is wiped, washed or sweated off. Skin cancer is the most easily preventable form of cancer and yet in Australia, more people die from skin cancer each year than are killed in road accidents. Remember, prevention is better than cure. Prepare to win for you.


We all want to be the best we can be? What can you do to be innovative? With the plethora of information available through the Internet and the capacity for coaches (and athletes and parents of players) to get any information they need anywhere, anytime, how can you be innovative? Be creative. Think outside the box. Olusoga et al (2009) highlighted the importance of psychological skills training for coaches to help them cope with the diverse demands of world class coaching. Also look to what other sports are doing. Create an effective learning environment for you and your players, read, talk to other coaches, find a different way. Get excited. Engage with your players and inspire them to be all they can. It is the little differences that make the big difference.


A commitment to continuous improvement and accelerated learning is essential for coaches at all levels. There are so many ways to do this, from attending conferences, reading, watching videos, on the internet, talking to other coaches, and letting your life experiences become your own coaching lab. Stimulate you. The best way to learn is by doing. Be one step ahead all the time. Have fun and get creative. Sometimes it is our mistakes that teaches us the greatest learning.

Don’t focus on win-loss records. Coaches have been found to be more likely to burmout if they focus on wins and losses. Focus on your own coaching performance such as teaching more effectively, strategizing, optimizing training, developing mental toughness and emotional control, and creating a motivational environment for players Duda et al (1999). Look at things differently. Find a mentor to support you..


Do you practise what you preach? Coaches are always telling their players to drink up and eat to win. Do you lead by example? Do you have energy snacks and a drink close by all the time? The same principles apply to you, as to your players. Be a role model for your students. Inadequate fluid intake and/or excessive sweat losses mean that you work harder, your intensity is lower, you fatigue faster and you react slower. You cannot win. Energise you!


A sign that you are overworking is irritability, hypertension, impatience and a loss of your drive and determination. Working too hard is not good for your health or your lessons. Be sure you plan to recover too. Learning how to shut down, turn off and re-energise is as important to success and well being as firing up, and ready to win a big match. It is as much a physical as it is emotional rejuvenation. Getting a great night’s sleep goes a long way to help you recuperate and recharge. Some passive recovery activities include massage, hot baths, ice baths, meditation, naps, deep breathing, reading, watching television, or some quiet down time. Active recovery activities involves movement of the body, such as walking or jogging, yoga, stretching, pilates and recreational sports. Taking regular breaks between your lessons also helps to sustain full engagement as does a short break away. Now there are no excuses!


A great way to achieve well being is simply just taking time to be grateful. How lucky are we that you get to play tennis for a job, travel the world, and can have life long impacts on so many around players. Notice, appreciate, feel, experience and anticipate all the good that currently exists in your life. Go and write them down now. Embrace the massive blessings around you every day. Live with an attitude of gratitude.


Contrast the difference between practicing on the Centre Court at a Grand Slam versus a court with pot holes, broken fence lines and dull lighting. Your environment really does make a difference to your well being and to all those around you. What could you do to improve your environment? This might include not only where you teach, but also your office, your home, your car, your clothes, and everything all around you. In well designed environments, you are more creative and productive (Leonard, 2000). You have more energy, and can accomplish things so much easier. Having the right equipment puts you in a position to do your best and makes you feel great too. Create an atmosphere where your players’ talents can flourish.


It is especially important to plan time out to have fun. When you are consumed by your work, you suddenly lose contact with everything else that is meaningful in your life. Block out time for fun. Rekindle your intrinsic fire. Make your rejuvenation just as important as work. Your health depends on it. Some ideas include making time for dinner, getting together with friends, or getting a massage. Keep your blackberry or your iphone turned off! Get present to the experience in the moment. Fun should be a central theme for your players and for you! Life is a journey, not a destination.

As lucky as we all are to be involved in such a great sport day in and day out, remember it is only one part of your life and one facet of who you are as a person. Establish your priorities, set your goals and never stop learning. Constantly energise and recharge you to keep the balance. Live with an attitude of gratitude and enjoy the journey winning the game of your life.


Duda, J.L., Balaguer, I., Moreno, Y., & Crespo, M. (2001). The relationship of the motivational climate and goal orientations to burnout among junior elite tennis players. Paper presented to AAASP. Orlando.

Eklund, R. C., Kelley, B.C., Ritter-Taylor, M. (1999). Stress and burnout among collegiate tennis coaches. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 21(2).

Green, L.S., Oades, L.G., & Grant, A.M. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral, solution-focused life coaching: Enhancing goal striving, well-being, and hope. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(3): 142-149.

Kallus, K.L. & Kellmann, M. (2000) Burnout in Athletes and Coaches. In: Hanin, Y.L. (2000) Emotions in Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Kelley, B. (1994). A model of stress and burnout in collegiate coaches: Effects of gender and time of season. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65, 48-58.

Kelley, B., Eklund, B., & Ritter-Taylor, M. (1999). Stress and burnout among collegiate tennis coaches. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 21(2), 113-130.

Klinger, E. (1977). Meaning and void: Inner experience and the incentives in lives. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Leohr, J. & Schwartz, T. (2003) The Power of Full Engagement. NSW, Australia. Allen & Unwin.

Leonard, T.J. (2000). The Portable Coach, New York: Scribner

Olusoga, P., Butt, J., Hays, K., & Maynard, i.(2009). Stress in Elite Sports Coaching: Identifying Stressors. Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, 21, (4), 442-459.

Quinn, A.M. (2010) Become the CEO of your Life. Melbourne Australia, Quinnessential Coaching.

Sheldon, K. M., Kasser, T., Smith, K., & Share, T. (2002). Personal goals and psychological growth: Testing an intervention to enhance goal attainment and personality integration. Journal of Personality, 70, 5–31.
Weinberg, R.S., & Gould, D. (1999). Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics